The kingdom of Bhutan is a nation, located towards the eastern Himalayas. It is sandwiched between the sovereign territory of two nations: China on the north and northwest and India on the south, southwest, and east.
Bhutan is a very compact and landlocked nation, with just a small bit more length than width. The nation's territory totals an approximate 38,394 km². Its shape, area, and mountainous location are comparable to that of Switzerland. Bhutan's territory used to extend south into present-day Assam, including the protectorate of Cooch Behar but, starting in 1772, the British East India Company began to push back the borders through a number of wars and treaties, severely reducing Bhutan's size until the Treaty of Sinchulu of 1865, when some border land was ceded back. The Himalayas dominate the north of the country, where mountain peaks can easily reach seven thousand meters; the highest point is claimed to be the Kula Gangri, at 7,553 m.
The highlands are the most populous part of the nation; the capital of Bhutan, Thimphu lies in the western region. The region is characterized by its many rivers (flowing into India's Bramaputra), its isolated valleys that house most of the population, and the expansive forests that cover seventy percent of the nation. Winters are cold, summer are hot; the rainy season is accompanied with frequented landslides.The valleys of Bhutan are linked by a series of passes ("La" in Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan). Between the Haa valley and Paro Valley is the Chele-la (3,780m). The Chele La is the highest pass crossed by a Bhutanese highway. The Lateral Road from Thimphu to Punakha crosses the Dochu-La (3,116m). East of Wangdue Phodrang is the Pele-La (3,390m). Continuing to the east along the main highway, other major passes include the Yotong-La, Sherthang-La, Wangthang-La, Thrumseng-La and Kori-La (2,298m).The extreme southern strip of the nation consists mostly of tropical plains, more typical of India. It is largely agricultural land, producing mostly rice. Only two percent of Bhutan is arable land, with most of it focused here.